Exploring the Components of Blood - Westlab

Components of Blood

Exploring the Components of Blood - Westlab

Posted on the 25th of Aug 2023 by Westlab

Blood is a vital fluid circulating throughout the human body, delivering essential nutrients and oxygen to cells while removing waste products. It may seem like a simple red liquid, but it is a complex mixture of cells and plasma working in harmony. 

This blog will delve into the components of blood and lab equipment used for blood analysis.

What are the Components of Blood? 

Blood is an intricate fluid essential for transporting vital nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body. It consists of two main categories: cells and plasma. The cellular components of blood include white blood cells, red blood cells,  and platelets. 

On the other hand, Plasma is the liquid portion of blood. It is a yellowish fluid that is made up of water. It contains vital substances like salts, enzymes, hormones, and proteins. 

Let’s explore the blood components in detail:


Plasma is a yellowish liquid comprising about 55% of total blood volume. Plasma contains salts, enzymes, hormones, waste products, gasses, nutrients, and proteins like albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen. 

Plasma is the medium for blood cells and platelets to travel throughout the body. It helps regulate body temperature, transport waste to the kidneys, and provide essential proteins for various functions.

Red Blood Cells (RBCs)

 Red Blood Cells, with their unique biconcave shape, are the most abundant cells in our blood. RBCs transport oxygen from the lungs to every cell in the body. 

White Blood Cells (WBCs)

These blood cell components are our body's defense agents. They are fewer in number compared to RBCs but play a crucial role in immunity. A high or low WBC count can indicate potential health issues, from infections to immune disorders.

Their types and functions are as follows:

  • Neutrophils: Act as first responders during infections.
  • Lymphocytes: Produce antibodies and destroy infected cells.
  • Monocytes: Engulf and digest pathogens.
  • Eosinophils: Fight parasitic infections and play a role in allergic reactions.
  • Basophils: Release histamine during allergic reactions.


These tiny, disc-shaped fragments in our blood are essential for clotting. When a blood vessel is injured, platelets stick together, forming a plug that stops bleeding. They also release chemicals that activate the clotting process.

Why is it Essential to Understand the Components of Blood?

Exploring blood components is essential for several fundamental reasons, ranging from clinical applications to scientific understanding. Here are some of the primary reasons why it's necessary:

Understanding Human Physiology

Blood is fundamental in physiological processes like oxygen transport, immune defense, and temperature regulation. Studying its components allows for a deeper understanding of human body function.

Medical Diagnosis

Blood tests are among the most common diagnostic tools. By examining the components of the blood, healthcare professionals can diagnose a wide range of conditions, from anemia and infections to cancers like leukemia.

Monitor Health Conditions

Regular examination of blood components helps monitor the progress and management of chronic conditions such as diabetes, high cholesterol, kidney or liver diseases, and many others.

Disease Prevention

Blood tests can act as preventive screenings. Regularly checking the components of blood can diagnose and cure health issues before they become serious problems.

Therapeutic Interventions

Understanding blood components is vital for therapies like blood transfusions, organ transplants, and surgeries. For example, ensuring compatibility in blood transfusions requires a deep knowledge of blood types, antigens, and antibodies.

Scientific Research

Scientific understanding of blood components is crucial for developing new medical treatments and vaccines and understanding the pathogenesis of diseases. Research into stem cells, for example, which are found in the blood, has the potential to revolutionize treatments for various conditions.

Forensic Applications

Understanding blood and its components in forensic science can help in crime scene investigations. It can be used for DNA profiling, determining the cause of death, or verifying the presence of substances in an individual's system.

The exploration of blood components provides essential insights into an individual's health status, helps diagnose and treat diseases, drives scientific advancements, and even aids in legal and anthropological investigations.

Laboratory Equipment to Measure the Components of Blood

Lab tools and science education supplies have made it easier to analyze the blood components. These are a few laboratory equipments used to measure the components of blood:


It is a thick glass microscope slide used to determine blood cells' concentration. It's primarily utilized for counting cells in lower-concentration solutions and is often the go-to for manual cell counting in many laboratories.

Flow Cytometer

A flow cytometer measures cells or particles' physical and chemical characteristics in a fluid as they pass through laser beams. It is beneficial for determining the different subtypes of white blood cells and analyzing cell surface markers.


Centrifuges separate blood components based on their densities. Spinning blood in a centrifuge can differentiate plasma from red blood cells, platelets, and other cellular components. It's an essential tool for preparing samples for various tests.


This device measures the clotting ability of blood. It's crucial for tests related to bleeding disorders, giving insights into the functioning of the blood's clotting components.

Blood Gas Analyzer

This equipment measures gasses (like oxygen and carbon dioxide) and electrolytes in the blood, providing insights about lung function and the pH balance of the blood. It's vital for critical care settings and assessing respiratory diseases.


Spectrophotometers measure the amount of light absorbed by substances, and in the context of blood, they're used to determine hemoglobin concentration. They're pivotal for diagnosing conditions like anemia.

Each piece of equipment offers unique insights into the composition and function of blood, helping healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care.

Blood is a remarkable fluid, with each component pivotal in maintaining health. Understanding these components gives insight into the wonders of human physiology and underscores the importance of health care.

The journey of understanding blood and its components requires not just knowledge but also the right tools. If the world of hematology inspires you and seeks reliable lab equipment to explore blood components, look no further than West Lab Canada. Westlab is a leading lab equipment supplier, offering high-quality instruments to ensure your blood exploration is efficient and thorough. 

Visit the WestLab website today and get all the lab equipment you need!


What is the large component of blood?

Among components of blood, Plasma is the largest component constituting 55% of blood volume. It is mainly composed of water, salts, lipids, hormones, and proteins like albumin.

What are the three main component cells of blood?

The three main blood cell components are red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

What makes up 90% of the blood?

Over 90% of the blood components consist of water in plasma. The remaining portion is made up of cells and dissolved substances.


2023-08-25 06:07:00
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