Advanced Molecular Model

Code: 224-3000

In response to requests from many educators over the years we made available a kit that can be used, not only for demonstrating organic structures, but also inorganic structures and molecular geometry. Balls containing 5 (drilled trigonal bipyramidal) and 6 (drilled octahedral) holes can be used for illustrating molecular geometry in elements which are in the third row and higher in the Periodic Table. These balls can also be used to demonstrate linear, trigonal planar, and square planar geometry.

The gray, phosphorus atoms are drilled with 5 holes to form a trigonal bipyramidal arrangement. This can serve several purposes. Molecules such as PCl5 - and even more interesting, PF3Cl2, as there is more than one possible arrangement of the F and Cl around the P, can be constructed.

Planar and linear molecules such as BF3 and BeH2 can also be constructed. When constructing these 'trigonal' arrangements, where the molecule is flat, with angles of 120°, or 'linear' arrangements with bond angels of 180°, the extra holes are ignored, while the holes needed for these molecules are used.

Some molecules, such as ClF3, have five pairs of electrons around the central atom, although only three pairs are involved in bonds. The molecular geometry must get all five as far away from each other as possible, so a
5-holed ball is needed for the model.

The 6-holed balls have all the holes at right angles to each other. These are useful for making models of molecules such as SF6 , where the arrangement is 'octahedral'. Molecules such as XeF4 have a geometry called 'square planar', where all four F atoms are at right angles to each other in a plane. (This molecule is not tetrahedral because the Xe has two additional pairs of electrons which need to be as far away from each other as possible.)

The blue nitrogen atoms in this kit are drilled with four holes arranged tetrahedrally, since nitrogen always has at least three bonds plus another pair of electrons. While only three holes are needed for organic structures, the fourth hole is useful in showing the contribution lone pair electrons make to the geometry.

Detailed Kit Contents
1 1/4 Diameter Balls


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